Iran


Iran is the cradle of the oldest civilization in Asia. It  is dominated by a high plateau, with large salt flats and vast sand deserts. This plateau has been inhibited by different people. The Aryans started dueling in the Iranian plateau since second millennium B.C. and Achaemenids dynasty established the first Great Iranian Empire in 330 B.C

 


It is
situated in south-western Asia and borders the three CIS states, the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Azerbaijan, and the Republic of Turkmenistan, as well as the Caspian Sea to the north, Turkey and Iraq to the west, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south and Pakistan and Afghanistan to the east.


Iran has a complex climate,  ranging subtropical to subpolar. You may witness all four seasons in the different parts of its territory. The temperature
difference of two locations in Iran at one point in time reaches to 50° C. In winter, one may swim in an outdoor pool or in the southern shore of the Persian Gulf, while the other is skiing in Tehran or in the western mountains. In general, Iran has an arid climate in which most of the relatively scant annual precipitation falls October through April. In most of the country, yearly precipitation averages 25 centimeters or less.


In the western part of
the Caspian, rainfall exceeds 100 centimeters annually and is distributed relatively evenly throughout the year. In the northwest, winters are cold with heavy snowfall and subfreezing temperatures during December and January. Spring and fall are relatively mild, while summers are dry and hot. In the south, winters are mild and the summers are very hot, having average daily temperatures in July exceeding 38° C (100° F).


The three
major seas surrounding Iran are the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea, located in the northern part of the country, is the largest landlocked body of water in the world (424,240 sq. km.) and lies some 85 feet below the sea level. It is comparatively shallow, and for some centuries has been slowly shrinking in size. It abounds with fish, Caviar in particular. Its coasts do not offer any good natural harbors, and sudden and violent storms make it dangerous for small boats. It is next to IAU, Ayatollah Amoli international branch.
The Persian Gulf is the shallow marginal part of the Indian Ocean that lies between the Arabian Peninsula and south-east Iran. The Persian Gulf and the surrounding countries produce approximately 31 per cent of the world\'s total oil production and have 63 per cent of the world\'s proven reserves. The coastal plain widens north of the city of Bushehr on the eastern shore of the gulf and passes into the broad deltaic plain of the Tigris, Euphrates and Karun rivers.


Iran’s
calendar is based on the solar calendar. Norouz, which is the 20th of March, is the beginning of the Iranian year. It is a celebration of spring Equinox. It is a uniquely Iranian tradition and is deeply rooted in the traditions of the Zoroastrian belief system .Persian (or Farsi), an Indo-European language, is Iran\'s national and official language. Arabic is spoken in Khuzestan in the southwest and Turkish in the northwest around Tabriz. English, French and (to a lesser extent) German are spoken by many businessmen and officials. 

There are many local languages and accents in Iran such as Azeri, Gilaki, Kurdish, Arabic, Baluchi, Lori, etc.
 

 

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City of Amol

Amol is an old city dating back to the Amards and the Ashkanian empire, located on the bank of the Haraz river. It is less than 8 miles south of the Caspian Sea and less than 4 miles Mount Damavand, a potentially active volcano, and the highest peak (18,386 ft.) in Iran. In respect to the relics and coins found in this region, this city can be said to be the capital of this territory during the Sassanid era. The inhabitants of Amol city embraced Islam during the reign of Mahdi, the Abbasi Caliph, after which Islamic structures came into focus here. But after the Mongol invasion, the region was subject to devastation and it was during this time that Sary was declared as capital. In the beginning of the 7th century A.H., Hessam-edin Ardeshir, shifted the capital Sari to Amol, and constructed his palace there. But in the year 795 A.H., the cities of Amol and Sari were plundered by Amir Teimoor Gurkani, and thereafter Amol suffered a setback. The great scholar and religious personality (translator of The Holy Qoran), Mohammad Ebne Jarir Tabari is Amol city.

In the  5th century AH,  Khawja  Nezam-ul-mulk Toosi,  in  his  famous book named .

"Seer-ul- moluok" recommended creation of modern institutions by the name of Nezamiah  with academic status in the big famous cities of Islamic world as  Balkh, Baghdad, Damascus, Neshapour, and Bukhara.  The name of  Amol was also included among them.

One of  the notable and famous personalities Amol is Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, a well known and world famous Persian historian and exegete.



The city has a multi-ethnic population, a diverse community that welcomes international students. Amol has a lot to offer including beaches, mountains, the forest, good food and theater. The modern city of Amol stands to the north of the site of the ancient city.

 

Geographical  Location

 

 Amol is located on the banks of Haraz River at an altitude of 76 m above sea. It is about 18 km the Caspian sea and about 10 km the northern Alborz mountains. It is 180 km the Iranian capital, Tehran, with a picturesque  drive  through  Haraz Road.  Sari, the capital of Mazandaran is 70 km east of Amol. Mount Damavand, 5610 m, the highest peak in the Middle East, is located south of Amol. Amol and its suburbs has an estimated population of 350 000 and the city has a population of approximately 160 000. Its area is approximately 3185 square kilometers.

 

Weather

 

City weather is usually similar to that of other towns and cities of Mazandran. In summer it is hot and humid and in winter  it is mild. Maximum rainfall is usually  in the month of December and minimum in the month of July

 

Historical  and  Touristic Attractions

Some of the historical and tourist attractions of the city are:

1.

 

Mashed Mir Boor shrine,(Shrine of Mir Ghavamudin Marashi, the marashi  dynasty in Mazandran )

2.

Mir Heydar Amoli

3.

Emamzadeh Ebrahim

4.

Emamzade Ghassem,

5.

Emamzadeh  Abdollah shrine,

6.

Nasirulhagh  Hasan bin Ali  shrine

7.

Mowlana Seyed Wali, in Niak

8.

Davaazdah Cheshmeh bridge,

9.

Malek Bahman castle in Shahandasht

10.

Mirza Kouchek khan Natural Park ( 20km on Heraz Road)

11.

Ab Ask and Abgarm Larijan hot springs,

12.

Lar tulip valley, and mount Damavand, the highest peak in the Middle East.

13.

New natural Parks ( under construction)